#1: Look For Amines
Food hypersensitivity can be caused by the histamine, tyramine or other “biogenic amines” present in the food (chocolate, red wine, tuna or fermented ingredients such as cheese). In some cases, food (for example tomato or pineapple) may release histamine in the body. This is referred to as Histamine Intolerance Syndrome (HIS). Individuals with HIS typically have a low level of diamine oxidase, an enzyme that metabolizes histamine in the system.
So…if you get headaches, brain fog, low energy or other issues, then you should review your diet for the following and experiment with eliminating any that happen to be major staples:
#2: Use Natural Foods To Support Digestion
Sure, you can take probiotics, digestive enzymes and other supplements to support digestion, but you should also get familiar with natural, easy-to-afford foods that support digestion, including:
• Fresh carrot juice (supports intestinal mucous membranes)
• Celery juice (promotes intestinal movements and alleviates constipation)
• Level of hydrochloric acid (betaine hydrochloride, HCL)
• Carminatives that reduce gas in the intestine: orange, fennel, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, cilantro, caraway, licorice, oregano, parsley, peppermint oil, rosemary, sage, lemon balm, dill, thyme, garlic.
• Bitters that stimulate the production of stomach acids and digestive enzymes: Jerusalem artichoke, Angelica sylvestris root, yellow gentian, Angelica archangelica root
• Other foods that support digestion: Aloe vera, pineapple, chia seeds, chlorella, sauerkraut, currants, Iceland moss, chamomile, cranberries, oats, meadowsweet, blueberries, oregano, chaga mushrooms, papaya, linseeds, horse radishes, lingonberries, psyllium, rhubarb root, plantago, rosehip, spirulina, sea buckthorn, raspberry leaf, wheatgrass, valeriana.
#3: Careful With Foil
Tinfoil is typically used for stewing meat or fish on a grill or in an oven. Stewing in tinfoil reduces the formation of glycotoxins and HCAs, but the amount of aluminum released into the food is up to 6 times the amount considered a safe daily upper limit.
#4: Get To Know Your Genes
Of course, genes also influence diet.
Nutrigenomics involve the study of the effects of nutrition on the function of genes. For example, researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) have found that cutting sugar consumption (to less than 40 percent of the energy content of the meal) can lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases, dementia, some types of cancer, and diabetes.
Genes affect metabolism in a comprehensive way. Because of this, it would be a mistake to expect that a particular diet (such as a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet) would produce the same results for everyone.
Listed below are just a few gene of the many gene variants described in the book that are worth noting in terms of diet:
• Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is crucial for fat metabolism, particularly for breaking down lipoproteins (including LDL). People with types 3/4 and especially 4/4 are associated with high cholesterol levels, carotid artery disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, although the cognitive processes of individuals with a type 4 variant deteriorate faster than usual, their brain function early in life is enhanced, particularly in the hippocampus.
• PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma) is a nuclear protein that has an effect on obesity. The Ala type is associated with a lowered risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, a study conducted on mice found that for individuals with this variant, a high-fat diet increased obesity more rapidly and thus formed a predisposing factor for diabetes.
• Variant rs4988235 of the MCM6 genemaffects the production of the lactase enzyme (LCT). Individuals with a T type variant usually tolerate lactose. The C/T type variant is associated with obesity. Individuals with a C/C type variant are likely to be lactose intolerant.
• Variant I148M of the PNPLA3 gene. This variant of the PNPLA3 gene related to fat metabolism slows the breakdown of triglyceride fats in the liver and thus promotes the onset of fatty liver disease, which could affect your decision on how much “butter-in-your coffee” you think about drinking.
• Variant 164A>C of the CYP1A2 gene. Caffeine, mycotoxin and paracetamol (among others) are broken down in the liver mainly by the CYP1A2 enzyme. Each individual’s CYP1A2 enzyme system functions at
a different rate. Individuals with a type C variant have a slow enzyme system. For these individuals, drinking coffee can increase the risk of heart attack214 and/or high blood pressure.
•Variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene and variant A66G of the MTRR gene. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme needed to convert folic acid and certain other forms of folate into methylfolate (5-MTHF). Folic acid can be found in vitamin supplements and vitamin-enriched foods. Individuals with these variants are unable to efficiently convert folic acid into active folate. This results in a high homocysteine level, a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, particularly in individuals with variants C677T and A66G. Switching from folic acid to more efficient methyltetrahydrofolate is recommended.
• ANKK1 is fundamentally linked to the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), i.e. reward and motivation. A mutation in this gene is a predisposing factor for addictive behavior (alcohol, tobacco, sugar, gambling, opiates).
-The effects of coffee depend on one’s genetic makeup. For example, the CYP1A2 gene affects the body’s ability to remove caffeine from the system, and the VDR gene is associated with caffeine’s negative effects on bone health. For these reasons the same amount of caffeine may have a different effect on different individuals.